Author Archives: Jim Goes

Using Secondary Data in Doctoral Research

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By Marilyn Simon and Jim Goes

Psst…want a really good deal on a dissertation?  Low miles!

No, this is not a come on for one of those dissertation mills.  Rather, it is an invitation to consider an approach that relatively few doctoral learners consider – secondary data.

Secondary data is data originally developed or gathered for another purpose may indeed have low miles, and it certainly can be a way to accelerate and accomplish your research far more quickly and easily than collecting primary data.

When considering research topics and research designs, most doctoral students decide to collect primary data.  Primary data are data that are proactively gathered for a specific research purpose. There are, however, challenges involved with gathering primary data..  Not only must a population and sample be identified clearly, but as researchers we must convince our target population to respond.

There is another approach, and it can be quite effective even though among doctoral students it is rarely used.  Few students take advantage of secondary sources of data, even when they are readily available.

To read more about how you can use low mileage secondary data to accelerate your dissertation, read our updated guide here:

Using Secondary Data

The Dissertation Oral Defense

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Most doctoral programs require a final, oral defense of the dissertation, and a successful defense is one of the last steps to completion of the doctorate. The defense or oral (terminology varies across universities) is an opportunity for the doctoral candidate to present their research, explain their choices in developing and conducting the research, present the results of the research, and explain what it all means and how it adds to knowledge about the chosen subject or problem. The oral defense also provides an opportunity for the candidate to discuss their work with mentors, committee members, and other interested individuals, and engage them in a discussion of the research. The oral can be a very positive event for the doctoral candidate as they move from the role of a student to that of a degree holding scholar.

The context for this event can vary across universities, but usually involves a slide presentation, Q&A session, and discussion with the committee. Candidates will want to prepare carefully for the oral, so as to present their research in a positive manner. Be prepared to answer questions, discuss limitations of the research, and defend yourchoices on method, design, interpretation, etc. Sometimes the defense is a bit adversarial, as committee members or other attendees may challenge the choices and interpretations of the scholar. It is best to be very well prepared for likely questions. Usually, however, the oral is a celebratory as well as substantive event for the scholar and committee.

We see a few common problems in dissertation orals. First, avoid excessively detailed presentation slides, and choose a limited set of slides to review important study results and prompt the discussion. Don’t feel the need to read every slide word for word. I advise candidates to use no more than about 20-25 slides, but this number may vary depending on university norms and complexity of the research. Second, take charge of the presentation and discussion–this is your show, and committees will usually like you to organize and manage it. Third, emphasize the results and what they mean. In the final oral, there is usually no need to provide a detailed review of the methods and design. Instead, hit the high points, and cut quickly to results, interpretations, and implications. Committee members are usually far more interested in the larger importance of the results and how they are positioned in the larger literature, than they are in the minutia of methods, design, and data collection.

Additional resources on the oral defense and related issues, including a detailed discussion of the oral defense, can be found in the Guides, Tools, and Worksheets section of this website. Good luck with your oral!

– Jim Goes

Know your Methods

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I have the good fortune to be serving a Fulbright fellowship in India this spring, and have recently enjoyed participating in the final dissertation oral defense for several Indian students. It’s very interesting to see how this process is conducted in different universities, and also different countries. My limited observation of the final oral process in India is that it is far more critical and somewhat adversarial than the average oral defense in US universities. However one one major element seems similar – the need to know your methods and be able to explain the process of data collection and analysis to the committee.

Many doctoral students seek help from methodologists and statisticians when developing and executing their research. I strongly encourage my students to seek the help of methodological or statistical experts when they need help. It’s far better to get help than to try to conduct an analysis where you don’t really understand the mechanics and how to interpret the results.

However, when the time comes for you to defend your work in the oral defense, it is critical that you have a good understanding of the method and design and why they were chosen, how the analysis was conducted, and what the results really mean. I have seen situations in orals where the student could not explain what they did or why the results turned out as they did. Not only did this hurt their credibility, in a few cases, a second oral or major revisions was required. When you reach this point in the process, be sure to know your methods, and be prepared to explain them.

We have posted several short guides to method and design selection in the “guides, tools, and worksheets” section of this website, and a full and detailed discussion of different method and design options can be found in the 2013 edition of Recipes for Success.

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